Plantation, a usually large estate in a tropical or subtropical region that is cultivated by unskilled or semiskilled labour under central direction. The importance of the plantation sector in the Region is increasing as the demand for raw materials is rising and the supply from the natural forests is dwindling.
Plantation sector is not just a foreign exchange earner but a Key Sector in India’s Inclusive Growth Strategy because of its role in employment generation, (especially women labour) livelihood of small and marginal growers, backward communities, balanced regional development and addressing environmental issues. Further it is, perhaps, the only sector where competitiveness determines decisively the ability to foster inclusive growth as the competing countries are “desperate exporters” with hardly any domestic market. However, the sector is confronted with series of structural rigidities that creates spaces of exclusion at different levels.
Amla is botanically known as Emblica officinalis a genus of Emblica. It is a small genus of trees, native of India, Ceylon, Malaya and China. The amla fruit is green when tender, changing to light yellow or brick red colour when mature. It is sour and astringent, and is occasionally eaten raw. The amla fruit is used successfully in the treatment of human scurvy. It is a rich source of vitamin C. Amla fruit has been held in high esteem in indigenous medicine. It is acrid, cooling, and refrigerant. It wide application in food as curry, pickles in cosmetics preparation as herbal shampoo, Hair oil, herbal hair dye and many items. Its demand potential is very high.
Banana is one of the most important crops worldwide. They are the fifth largest agricultural commodity in world trade after cereals, sugar, coffee and cocoa. Banana cultivation is the profit making farming practice worldwide. Major banana producing countries are India, Brazil, China, and Ecuador. And the major importing countries are USA, Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom. India exports banana mainly to UAE, Saudi Arabia, and other Gulf countries. In India, the major banana growing states are Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat, A.P., Karnataka, Bihar, West Bengal, and Madhya Pradesh, Assam etc.
The major advantage of this fruit is its availability round the year. India leads the world in banana production with an annual output of about 16.820 mt. The scientific name of banana is Musa sp. In addition, banana is a nutritious food and have medicinal values. Banana has different commercial applications. Mostly, banana is popular as fresh fruit. In addition, the banana wafer as snacks and banana fibers have the different usage in the industry.
Coffee is the second most important beverage crop of India next only to tea. In India, coffee is grown in regions that receive 2,500–4,000mm rainfall across more than 100 days, followed by a continuous dry period of a similar duration. Coffee growing areas in the country have diverse climatic conditions, which are suitable for the cultivation of different varieties of coffee.
India is the third-largest producer and exporter of coffee in Asia, and the sixth-largest producer and fifth-largest exporter of coffee in the world. The country accounts for 3.43 per cent (2016-17) of the global coffee production.
Sheep farming in India is one of the traditional occupations of some people of India. People of some regions are raising sheep as domestic animal for fulfilling family nutrition demand and business purpose from the ancient time. Sheep is a small sized calm animal and grows rapidly. And the raising system is very easy and simple. Indian climate is very suitable for setting up sheep farming business in India. Sheep farming require little investment and we can get the returns of investment within a very short period.
Advantages of Sheep Farming in India
Sheep farming business is very profitable. It is a great business idea for the marginal and landless farmers to earn some extra income. The main advantages of sheep farming in India are listed below.
- Sheep are strong animal and well adopted to environment.
- They require less care and management.
- Rate of sheep meat in India is increasing day by day.
- You can produce various types of products from sheep. They are suitable for wool, skins, meat, manure and milk production.
- On an average a female sheep can give birth of 1-2 kids per delivery.
- Sheep require less place for living. In domestic rearing you can keep your sheep with other livestock animals. But for commercial production you must have to build a house or shelter for them.
- Labor costs for sheep farming in India is also very low.
- Sheep can survive by eating various types of grasses, weeds, plants, spinach, roots, plant roots and different types of low quality foods.
- Sheep do not damage the plants like goats while eating.
- Sheep meat has a huge demand and there are no religious taboos of consuming sheep meat in India.
- Sheep are considered as economical converter of grasses and green plants into valuable meat and wool.
- Sheep dung is a great fertilizer. We can also maximize our crop production by using sheep dung in our crop field.
Commercial goat farming in India is becoming very popular day by day. As goat farming is a proven highly profitable business idea so, the popularity of this business is increasing rapidly in India. It is also one of the finest and established livestock management department in the country. Huge market demand and proper spread ensures fast profitability and sustainability of this business for long term.
Continuously increasing demand of goat meat and milk in India is a hope for widely spreading this industry. In India, the goats are among the main meat producing animals. Most of the people prefer goat meat and has a huge domestic demand. Along with meat production, goats are also very suitable for milk, fiber and skin production. They also produce high quality manure which helps to increase the crop production. Goat has a great and important contribution in the rural economy. Specifically in mountainous, semi-arid and arid regions of India. There are more than 25% goats among the total livestock in the country.
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Amla is botanically known as Emblica officinalis a genus of Emblica. It is a small genus of trees, native of India, Ceylon, Malaya and China. The amla fruit is green when tender, changing to light yellow or brick red colour when mature. It is sour and astringent, and is occasionally eaten raw. Read more
VANILLA PLANTATION & PROCESSING
Vanilla (vanilla planifolia Andrews) is a climbing orchid. It is the second most expensive spice after saffron and is valued for its pleasant flavour. The principle sources of vanillin (B-glycosidase) is obtained from its cured beans. The main limitation in the cultivation of vanilla in India is the lack of knowledge of cultural aspects. Read more
With a rapidly growing economy and rising population, India is the fifth largest and one of the fastest growing petroleum oil consumers in the world. With limited domestic crude oil reserves, India meets over 72 per cent of its crude oil and petroleum products (diesel, aviation fuel, etc.) requirement through imports. Read more
OIL PALM CULTIVATION
Oil Palm cultivation is rapidly expanding within the tropical zone and South-East Asia is the leading producer of palm oil. Palm oil comes from trees grown in tropical areas of the world. Rising global demand for edible oils, coupled with the crop’s high yield, Read more
Banana is one of the most important fruit crops grown in India. In respect of area it ranks second and first in production only after mango in this country. Banana has a multiplicity of uses including food, beverages (soft and alcoholic), snacks, feed, industrial spirits, a number of crafts and medicinal potency. Read more
The genus comprises 50-60 species of shrubs or small trees indigenous to tropical Africa and Asia. Among them 4 or 5 species are important as sources of commercial coffee. In India coffee is grown mostly in the south on the foothills of the Western Ghats and it’s out crops, from Kadur District in the state of north to Travancore in south. Read more
PLANTATION OF MEDICINAL PLANT AND HERBS
There are several plants, which when coupled with a healthy life style, can be of preventive and therapeutic use in susceptible and high risk groups of patients. Hepatoprotective medicinal plants have been quite extensively investigated experimentally but clinical trial in hepatitis or liver cirrhosis are not easy to carry out. Read more
ROSE PLANTATION AND ROSE OIL EXTRACTION
There are more than 5000 verities of rose in India of which only a few yield essential oils. The verities that are grown in India for obtaining essential oils are rosa damascena mill (Fasli Rosa) and rosa borboniana desp (Edward Rose). The yield of rose oil is about 0.8 to 3.5 total per maund of rose flowers. Read more
RAJNIGANDHA & ROSE FLOWER PLANTATION WITH OIL EXTRACTION
Rajnigandha a 16-120 cm high with stout tuberous rootstock, leaves basal, liner those on the stem much shorter, flower tunnel shaped, waxy white fragrant in long terminal racemes. There are more than 5000 varieties of roses in India of which only a few yield essential oils. Read more
WHITE OAT PROCESSING
White Oat base products & processed White Oats are getting popular in the food habits in the modern age, due to its no cholesterol base food content. It has highest protein in the cereal grains. There are very few companies in India manufacturing Oat base products. Read more
HYDROPONIC GREEN HOUSE FARMING
Hydroponics is a system of agriculture that utilizes nutrient-laden water rather than soil for plant nourishment. The re-use of nutrient water supplies makes process-induced eutrophication (excessive plant growth due to overabundant nutrients) and general pollution of land and water unlikely, Read more
The Stevia plant belongs to the Compositae (sunflower family of plants). Centuries ago, Natives of Paraguay used the leaves of this small, herbaceous, semi-bushy, perennial shrub to sweeten their bitter drinks. Originating in the South American wild, Read more
GREENHOUSE (PLANT MICROPROPAGATION)
Green houses are frequently used to control or modify the exciting environmental factor, which effects the plant growth. A green house is a structure covered with transparent material that utilizes solar radiant energy to grow plants. The majority of green houses have heating, Read more
GOAT & SHEEP FARMING
Goats are allied to sheep but are much harder and more active animals. Their males or billy goats have a tuft of hair (beards) under the chin. The present day goats are said to be discarded from one to more kinds of wild goats of Asia & Europe. People who cannot afford to keep cows and buffaloes for milk keep goats. Read more
Rice is the leading food crop in the developing world in terms of total world production. It represents the staple food for almost two-thirds of the world’s population. Rice provides 21% of global human per capita energy and 15% of per capita protein. Read more
Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is an ancient favorite table fruit of tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The fruit is symbolic of plenty and very much liked for its cool, refreshing juice and valued for its medicinal properties. It retains its flavor and as such can keep well for over a year if it is properly filtered, Read more
DRAGON FRUITS FARMING
A pitaya or pitahaya is the fruit of several cactus species. “Pitaya” usually refers to fruit of the genus Stenocereus, while “pitahaya” or “dragon fruit” always refers to fruit of the genus Hylocereus. Dragonfruit stems are scandent (climbing habit), creeping, sprawling or clambering, and branch profusely. Read more
BUTTON MUSHROOM CULTIVATION
Button Mushroom is the most popular mushroom variety grown and consumed the world over. In India, its production earlier was limited to the winter season, but with technology development, these are produced almost throughout the year in small, medium and large farms, adopting different levels of technology. Read more
MAIZE CULTIVATION & ITS PRODUCTS
Amongst cereal crops of India, Maize ranks fifth in area and third in production and productivity. During last year 11.2 million tons grain production was realized in an area of 6.2 million hectare more or less constant in the last one decade. Production increased from less than 6.0 million tonnes to more than 11.2 million tonne during this decade. Read more
POULTRY & BROILER FARMING
Poultry farming has grown into a full-fledged commercial agro business. The demand for eggs and broiler meat are on the increase with growing population. The concentration and specialization of the poultry industry has led to development of allied industries to supply the products needed to support this industry. Read more
India is second largest producer of silk. Sericulture industry is looking out for the developments of young age silk worm rearing or chawki rearing. Care of silk worms start from the stage of procurement of silk worm eggs from the grainage itself. Read more
MUSHROOM CULTIVATION & PROCESSING
The high nutritional value of mushroom makes it is an ideal source of protein, vitamins and minerals. This alone should be reason enough for the government to encourage its widespread cultivation, let alone the benefits occurring from its export. Mushroom can be grown in different climatic condition. Read more
CUT ROSE FLOWER (FLORICULTURE)
Floriculture, or flower farming, is a discipline of horticulture concerned with the cultivation of flowering and ornamental plants for gardens and for floristry, comprising the floral industry. The development, via plant breeding, of new varieties is a major occupation of floriculturists. Read more
FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF ESSENTIAL OILS AND MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS
It is a distillation in which rectification is used to obtain product as nearly pure as possible. Fractionation is carried out at reduced pressure and usually by distilling the oil alone, without leading the water into the retort or injecting live steam into the oil. This process of dry distillation is widely applied in the essential oil industry today. Read more
MANAGEMENT OF RABBITS ANGORA RABBIT FARMING
In many rural areas, the materials for building rabbit cages and insulated housings and electricity are often not available. Hence, management of rabbit and farming of the same in proper scientific process is very important. Because, the woolen product from the Angora rabbit has tremendous market demand. Read more
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