The IV cannula itself is a small flexible tube that surrounds a trocar needle used to puncture the skin. The cannula has a fitting that can be connected to more tubing or a port for medication administration once the needle has been removed. Aside from aiding in hydration and administering medication, a cannula can also be used to obtain blood samples for testing.
Intravenous (IV) cannulation is a technique in which a cannula is placed inside a vein to provide venous access. Venous access allows sampling of blood, as well as administration of fluids, medications, parenteral nutrition, chemotherapy, and blood products.
A cannula is a tube that can be inserted into the body, often for the delivery or removal of fluid or for the gathering of data. In simple terms, a cannula can surround the inner or outer surfaces of a trocar needle thus extending the effective needle length by at least half the length of the original needle. It is also called an intravenous IV cannula. Its size mainly ranges from 14 to 24 gauge. Different-sized cannula have different colours as coded.
‘Cannula’ and ‘catheter’ both mean exactly the same thing– a flexible tube inserted into the body to administer or withdraw fluids or to keep another tube patent. Intravenous cannulation is a technique in which a cannula is placed inside a vein to provide venous access. Venous access allows sampling of blood as well as administration of fluids, medications, parental nutrition, chemotherapy, and blood products. In general, the smallest gauge of catheter should be selected for the prescribed therapy to prevent damage to the vessel intima and ensure adequate blood flow around the catheter, which reduces the risk of phlebitis. In an emergency situation or when patients are expected to require large volumes infused over a short period of time, the largest gauge and shortest catheter that is likely to fit the chosen vein should be used. There are four types of IV Catheter: Peripheral Catheter, Midline Peripheral Catheter, and Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter & Central Venous Catheter.
Uses and Applications
A venous cannula is inserted into a vein, primarily for the administration of intravenous fluids, obtaining blood samples and administering medicines. An arterial cannula is inserted into an artery, commonly the radial artery, and is used during major operations and in critical care areas to measure beat-to-beat blood pressure and to draw repeated blood samples. IV Cannula has veterinary use, nasal or oral use too. Cannula can also be used for piercing. The common uses are rapid transfusion of blood, transfusion of IV drugs. Paediatric patients or adults with small veins undergoing long term medication or blood transfusion are subjected to IV Cannula. It is also used on oncology patients undergoing Chemotherapy.
Few Indian Major Players are as under:-
- La Medical Devices Ltd.
- Lifeline Injects Ltd.
- Sangam Health Care Products Ltd.
- Span Medicals Ltd.
- Surgiplast Ltd.
The Indian market for peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVCs) is split up into 2 segments: conventional PIVC and safety PIVC. PIVCs are inserted in veins and arteries. An arterial access site is utilized in patients that require blood pressure monitoring. Firmer catheters are preferred for arterial access. A venous access site is utilized for infusing fluids, providing antibiotic treatment and other standard procedures. In 2016, safety PIVCs represented 12% of the total market for PIVCs, with the remaining balance represented by conventional PIVCs. Growth in the unit sales of advanced materials PIVCs is expected to drive gains in the share of safety PIVCs over the forecast period.
The global peripheral I.V. catheter market was valued at $3,702.2 million in 2015, and it is expected to grow at a CAGR of 6.0% during the period 2016 – 2022. The global market is increasing, due to growing geriatric population and increasing incidence of chronic diseases. In addition, the growing demand for injectable drugs in comparison to the oral medications, increasing healthcare expenditure and technological advancements in peripheral I.V. catheter is encouraging the growth of the global peripheral I.V. catheter market.
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