Every year, the world eats more than 600,000 metric tons of cashew. Every single cashew nut comes from its own cashew apple, which are grown on cashew trees and thrive in tropical climates. The nuts are then collected, dried, shelled, peeled, graded, and roasted.
Cashew nuts are among the most nutritious nuts in the world. Cashews are low in fat, have zero cholesterol, are high in protein, and include a large amount of important vitamins and minerals.
Cashew Nut Shell Liquid & Kernel Processing
Cashew was introduced in India by the Portuguese four centuries ago mainly to prevent soil erosion. It has been cultivated in several countries for a long time, but the credit for launching into commercial production and export of cashew kernels goes to India. At present India has a processing capacity over 1 million tonnes from 1098 processing units generating employment to over 0.5 million people in farms and factories. Three main cashew products are traded in the international market raw nuts, cashew kernels and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL).
Activated Carbon from Cashew Nut Shell
Carbon is probably the most widely distributed element in nature. It occurs in two allotropic crystalline forms, viz. Graphite (hexagonal system) and diamond (isomeric system), the former is soft and black where diamond is hard and transparent. Charcoal coke and carbon black classified as amorphous carbon, are considered by same to represent a third form, they are said to be composed of very minute crystals of graphite by others. Carbon is an essential constituent of all vegetable and animal matter in which constituent and other elements in immense variety of oxygen and other elements in immense variety of compounds.
Cashew Fruit Juice from Cashew Apple
Cashew apple juice has multifarious uses viz. as a beverage for drinking purposes, for wine manufacture & cashew feni, and its consumption in hotels, restaurants, juice corner or various occasions etc. makes it a demandable product.
Cashewnuts Processing (Dried & Fried)
Dried and fried cashewnut possess pleasant taste and flavour. They are mostly eaten fried, and are sometimes salted or sugared. They are used in large quantities by sweet meat dealers and confectioners. More than 70 % of the cashewnut production of India is from the West Coast, Ratnagiri, North Kanara and Malabar districts in Madras, Cochin, Travancore.
Cashew Nut Processing with CNSL
Three main cashew products are traded on the international market: raw nuts, cashew kernels and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). A fourth product, the cashew apple is generally processed and consumed locally. The raw cashew nut is the main commercial product of the cashew tree, though yields of the cashew apple are eight to ten times the weight of the raw nuts. Raw nuts are either exported or processed prior to export. Processing of the raw nuts releases the by-product CNSL that has industrial and medicinal applications. The liquid inside the shell (CNSL) represents 15 percent of the gross weight and has some attractive possible medicinal and industrial uses. CNSL is one of the few natural resins that is highly heat resistant and is used in braking systems and in paint manufacture.
Cashew Nut Processing
Cashew (Botanical name Anacardium Occidentale) was introduced in India by the Portuguese four centuries ago mainly to prevent soil erosion. The cashew adapts to various types of soils and climatic conditions and is hardy and draught resistant tree. India is the largest producer, consumer and exporter of cashew nut. It ranks 2nd among horticultural commodities contributing 1.5 per cent of the total export earning of the country. Cashew cultivation in India confines mainly to the peninsular areas. It is grown in Kerala, Karnataka, Goa and Maharashtra along the West Coast, and Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and West Bengal along the East Coast to a limited extent Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura also share its cultivation and production.
Cardanol from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL)
Cardanol is a naturally occurring phenol manufactured from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), a byproduct of cashew nut processing. Distillation of CNSL under reduced pressure gives cardanol. The residue will be rich in cardanol which is conveniently used in friction dust for brake lining, also in rubber compounding formulation.
India is the largest cashew processor in the world (25 lt of raw cashew nut per annum).
Export of cashewnut shell liquid/Cardanol from India stood at 3,394 tonnes, valued at Rs 13.01 crore (US$ 2.01 million) during April-July 2016, while exports of cashew kernels stood at 81,110 MT (provisional) in FY 2016-17, valued at Rs 5,077 crore (US$ 786.59 million).
India accounts for about 65 per cent of global cashew exports.
India exports cashew kernels to over 60 countries.
The cashew nut market is estimated to rally higher due to short supply of nuts in Vietnam and India. The market is already tending higher and with demand outpacing supply, the market is likely to move up to record levels.
India produces 6-7 million tonne of raw cashews per annum and was, until recently, the leading supplier of kernels to the global market.
The global popularity of cashew nuts has been growing faster than any other tree nut.
The export of cashewnut shell liquid / Cardanol from India during April to March 2016 was 11,677 M.T valued at Rs. 57.59 Cr. (US $ 9 Mln.). There was an increase of 6.7% in quantity, 3.2% in value in Rupee terms and a decrease of 3.6% in US $ terms compared to the export of 10,938 MT of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid valued at Rs. 55.81 Cr. (US $ 9.13 Mln.) during 2014-2015.
The export of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid / Cardanol from India during 2015-2016 was 11,677 MT valuedat Rs. 57.59 Cr. as against 10,938 MT valued at Rs.55.81 Cr. during 2014-2015.
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