Coal Washery Manufacturing Plant Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business plan, Industry Trends, Market research, survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility study, Investment opportunities, Cost and Revenue, Plant Economics, Production Schedule, Working Capital Requirement, Plant Layout, Process Flow Sheet, Cost of Project, Projected Balance Sheets, Profitability Ratios, Break Even Analysis
Coal is the key contributor to the Indian energy portfolio. It contributes to nearly half of commercial primary energy demand and one-third of total energy demand of the country. Although, India is one of the leading producers and consumer of coal, Indian coal has high ash content and embedded impurities, which needs washing and blending of coal for improving the quality of Run-of-Mine (ROM) coal. The steel sector needs coking coal with ash content of less than eighteen percent. Washing helps in reducing ash content by seven to eight percent. Quality and environmental concerns are causing a shift towards higher utilization of washed and blended coal. Presently nearly fifty-two commercialwasheries with installed capacity of about 131 MTPA are operating in the country.
In India, only about twenty percent of the coal produced is washed, as against the global average of over fifty percent. Coking coal preparation has long been in operation in India; however the trend of washing of non coking coal is also being seen. About twenty-three percent of the installed capacity is for coking coal and the rest is for non-coking coal. Further, as per the directives of MoEF, the power stations located at more than 1000 km away from coal mines and those located in sensitive areas are required to use coal containing not morethan thirty-four percent of ash on annual average basis.
Ever increasing demand of coal in sectors such as power & other metal manufacturing industries, urbanization, increasing oil prices, increase in extracting capacity and technological advancements are some of the major drivers for the global coal washery industry. Additional cost associated with coal washery, composition of raw feeds and absence of incentives schemes to the miner are some of the factors restraining growth of this industry.
Almost half of the worlds energy demand over the past decades was fulfilled by coal. In fact coal has been the world’s fastest energy source driven by Asian demand and regional abundance of fuel. Coal washery is an establishment where coal is alienated from slate and different impurities through various mechanical processes which utilize water and take gain of the difference in the specific gravity and its impurities of coal. The more impurities or waste material is removed from the coal the greater is the market value and lower ash content. Earlier coking coal was only washed as it was used in steel manufacturing with an ash content of 17-18 % but new environment regulations has put restriction on high ashcontent coal in power and other industries which necessitates the priority of washing non coking coal also.
Washing is carried out to reduce the ash content, and to lower the level of sulphur and unwanted minerals present in coal. Washed coal has higher calorific value than unwashed coal hence usage of washed coal helps in improving efficiency of steel, cement and power plants. Out of total of 104 coal-based thermal power plants, only thirty percent of power plants are using washed coal. Development of coal washeriesis not keeping pace with the demand of coal.
In the initial stage crushing is done to reduce the size of extracted coal and making it suitable for washing. Size reduction technique involves various processes such as intact, shearing, compression, splitting and attrition. After crushing screening process is done for the separation of heterogeneous particle. Different types of screens are used such as scalping screen, raw coal sizing screen, pre-wet screen, heavy media recovery screen, desliming screen and dewatering screen. Next process for cleaning of coal is through Jigs.
The method is operated on the basis of difference in specific gravity. Jigs offer cost effective technology with clean coal yield of 70-85%. Froth Floatation is the most widely used technique for cleaning coal. It utilizes the difference in the surface characteristics of coal and reuses it to clean ultra fine coal. The mixture of coal and water is conditioned with chemical reagents so that air bubbles will stick on the coal and floats on the top, while the reused particles sink. This cleaning technique is generally expensive and complex and is majorly for metallurgical coal. In launder process raw coal is fed into the high end of a trough with a stream of water. As the mixture of water and coal flows down, particles with the maximum settling speed settle down into the lower strata of the stream. The dirt free coal particles settle into the upper strata before separation.
Some of the key players in the coal washery market are Phil Group Coal Washeries, Larsen and Tubro Limited, China Metallurgical Engineering & Project Corporation, CLI Corporation and Adhunik Group among others. The preliminary study on coal washery market in India suggests that investment in coal washeries will increase exponentially in the coming years and host huge opportunities for private players.
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